Research Article | Animal Genetics and Breeding

Anthrax Bacterium: Epidemiology, Pathology, Dagnosis, Treatment and Remedial Interventions in Wild Animal

Nidhi Puranik, Shiv kumar Yadav, Shailja Singhal, and Rekha Khandia

Department of Biochemistry & Genetics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh - 462026, India

Published in the Indian Veterinary Journal April 2022 : 99 (4) - pages 10 to 21
(Received: , Accepted: )


Bacillus anthracis, a spore forming bacterium is potent biowarfare agent cause anthrax in herbivores animal and transmitted to human when exposed to affected animals or contaminated animal products. The effortlessness of its production, high fatality rate, easy aerosolization, rapid transmission and its stability in the harsh environment (in spore form), places it in a ‘Category A’ biological weapon list of CDC of the United States. On the basis of route of exposure three different forms of anthrax occur- Gastrointestinal, pulmonary and cutaneous. Among these, pulmonary anthrax is most lethal followed by gastrointestinal and cutaneous anthrax. In agriculture dominant country like India, anthrax occurred in domestic as well as wild animals and affects the public health management. Several outbreaks are reported from different areas of India, time to time, force the need for early diagnosis of the anthrax and detection of B. anthracisto save human and animal life. The present review article is about the history, genetics, pathogenicity, virulence, epidemiology, detection, diagnosis and treatment of B. anthracis.

Key Words: Anthrax, Bacillus anthracis, Bio warfare agent, pathogenicity, Diagnosis

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