194/22 | Review Article | Veterinary Clinical Medicine

Foot and Mouth Disease: A Review

Hana’a Burezq and Faten Khalil

Desert Agriculture and Ecosystems Program, Environment and Life Sciences Research Center Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, PO 24885 Safat 13109 Kuwait

Published in the Indian Veterinary Journal November 2022 : 99 (11) - pages 7 to 19
(Received: , Accepted: )


Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is an infectious, communicable sickness that can lead to vital economic losses in vulnerable cloven-hoofed animals. Small ruminants play a chief role in FMD epidemiology as virus carriers. Several sophisticated techniques such as Multiplex PCR, Sandwich and indirect ELISA and Real-Time PCR are used to diagnose FMD infection. The gold standard technique is yet another FMD diagnosis technique carried out in cell culture by isolating the virus. The capability to discriminate infected from immunized animals is critical in managing the FMD infection, which could be done by indirect ELISA, by sensing antibodies against non-structural proteins (NSPs). Controlling program of the disease usually include practices such as; active quarantine measures, immunization, medication and sanitation. Treatment of small ruminants could be carried out by prescribing antipyretic, analgesic, and antibiotic medication. Immunizing small ruminants with inactivated vaccine of FMDV managed to reduce the outbreaks worldwide. In order to fight FMDV infection, both innate and adaptive immunity should be activated. There are many crucial factors affecting the development of anti-FMDV immunity within the body of the host such as; the production of CD4+ T-cells, CD8+ T-cells, and secretion of interferons. The components of innate immunity as well as cell-mediated and humoral immunity play a crucial role in FMDV control. The current review highlights the cellular and humoral immune

Key Words: Analgesics, antibiotic, cellular immunity, cloven-hoofed animals, Foot and Mouth Disease Vaccination

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